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                   INDIAN HISTORY 

The-History: The Indian pre-history has broadly been divided into three cultural stages: 
1. Paleolithic Age or Old Stone Age(5,00,0003.C-10,000B.C): When first stone tools were made by flaking and men lived in hunting and food gathering stage. 

2. Mesolithic Age or Late Stone Ag8(10,00llB.C.-6000B.C.): When ‘microlithic’ tools were used. It was the transitional period between the Paleolithic and Neolithic age. Hunting and food gathering continued during this period. 

3. Neolithic Age or New Stone Age (6000-4000B.C.): When men-made stone Tools by grinding and polishing were used, agriculture developed, life became settled and sedentary; that is why it is sometimes called ‘Neolithic revolution ’. In the world context, the Neolithic Age began in 9000 BC. The only Neolithic settlement in the Indian subcontinent attributed to 7000 BC. which furnishes the first clear evidence of agriculture and domestication of animals is ‘Meheigarh ". But generally, Neolithic settlements found in South India are not older than 2500 BC. lonesome parts of southern and eastern India they are as late as 1000 BC.

Chalcolithic Cultures: Chalcolithic cultures or i stone-copper age saw the use of metals, the first being copper, along with stone tools. Technologically, chalcolithic age applied to the Pre-Harappa’s.

The Pre-Harappan Culture: Various types of Pre-Hardpan chalcolithic cultures prompted the spread of farming communities in Sind, Baluchistan, Rajasthan, etc. and created conditions for the rise of the urban civilization of Harappa. Mention may be made of Amri and Kotdiji in Sindh, Kalibanga, and Ganeshwar in Rajasthan. It appears that some chalcolithic fanning communities ventured to the flood plains of the Indus’ learned Bronze technology and succeeded in setting up cities.

Proto-History: Indus valley civilization forms a part of the protohistoric period of Indian history and belongs to the ‘Bronze Age ’. As this civilization was first discovered in AD. 1921 at the modern site of Harappa situated in the province of West Punjab in Pakistan it is also called Harappan civilization. 

INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION (2500 1750 B. C.) Origin: There are two views of the origin of Indus valley civilization Indigenous, from Pre-Harappan village culture and foreign origin influenced by Mesopotamia. The first view is more reasonable.

Extent: Territorially biggest of .ancient civilizations, formed a triangle and accounted for about 1,299,600 sq. km with Sutkagendor in Makran coast, Alamgirpur in Meerut district of Up manda in Jammu and l Halavana in Surat district of ‘Gujarat forming its western, eastern. northern and southernmost points respectively.

Period: Recent Carbon 14 dating indicates the period of l VC as 2350 to l 750 B.C. and its mature phase between C. 2200 -2000 B. C. 

People: The Indus valley civilization population was heterogeneous; mainly four racial types (i) Mediterranean (ii) Proto-Australoids (ii) Mongoloids and (iv) Alpines. But the majority consisted of the former two.

Town planning: The major sites of the Indus valley civilization had their own citadel or an acropolis below which lay the lower town containing brick houses inhabited by the common people. The streets originated north-south and east-west produced a grid system. The houses of Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro were almost invariably made of kiln-burnt bricks. Elsewhere in the contemporary world mud bricks and wattle and daub were the usual building materials and burnt-bricks were altogether .unknown. Many of the houses were provided with a well, and there was an excel-lent underground drainage system. The elaborate drainage system testifies to the civic sense and attention to health and cleanliness of the Harappans.

Important sites: So far nearly 1000 sites of early mature and late phases of the Harappan culture is known in the subcontinent, but of them, only half a dozen like Mohenjo-Daro, Harappa, Kalibanga, Lothal, Chanhudaro, Banawali, Dholavira can be regarded as cities. Important port towns are Lothal, Surkotada and Dholavira. The largest number of Harappan sites are in Gujarat. Four largest Harappan sites are Mohenjo-Daro, Harappa, Banawali, and Dholavira.

Social condition: An ‘Urban Society ’ consisting mainly of the middle class, highly developed civic life, a stratified social structure, division of labor based on the specialization of work like craftsmen, sculptures, jewelers, merchants, traders, potters, carpenters, etc. The presence of a warrior class is uncertain. 

Food: wheat and barley was a staple food.

Garments: Garments of cotton and wool were used.

Pottery: The wheel turned and well tired black or red pottery having the design of tree and circles.

'Metals: Copper, bronze, silver, gold, lead were known but not Iron. Silver was more common than gold.

Weapons: Axes, spear, daggers, bows and arrows, and short swords make usually of copper and bronze and almost. Offensive in characters.

Utensils: Bronze and copper objects for domestic use include knife-blades, sickles, fish hooks and a variety of pots ‘

Entertainment: Included dice playing or hunting with wi 1d animals, the former being much popular among them.

Economic condition: It was mainly agrarian but sup-ported by trade and commerce. Wheat and barley were the main food crops besides rai, peas, seas mum, mustard, palmate, etc. were also grown, but not rice which was perhaps grown only at Lothal and Rangpur. No canal irrigation but “gabarband’ or reservoirs found. No hoe or plowshare has been discovered. Despite being profiled cultivation, it had a‘ surplus production.

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